The History of Jerusalem timeline

3500 BCE
The first settlement of Jerusalem took place on the Ophel above the Gihon Spring

19th Century BCE
The first recorded mention of Jerusalem as Rusalimum was in the Egyptian Execration Texts

The Persian Period
1750 BCE — 1500 BCE

The Hyksos Period

14th Century BCE

Diplomatic correspondence refers to Jerusalem as Urusalim in the Amarna Letters

1010-970
King David’s reign

1003
Jerusalem is established by King David as the capital of the United Kingdom of Israel

970-931
King Solomon’s reign

950
King Solomon begins construction of the First Temple

931
The Land of Israel is divided into the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah

837-800
Tunnels conduit from water from the Gihon Spring to the Siloam pool during the reign of Hezekiah, the King of Judah

721
The Northern Kingdom of Israel is conquered by the Assyrians and 10 of the 12 tribes are carried into captivity and eventual dispersal.

701
Sennacherib’s assault on Jerusalem is successfully withstood by Hezekiah

598-587
The second invasion by Nebuchadnezzar

597
Jerusalem is captured by the Babylonians

588-586
The third invasion by Nebuchadnezzar

586
Nebuchadnezzar’s destruction of Jerusalem and its Temple and the exile of its people to Babylon (Lam 1.4 / 2.2)

539
Babylon’s fall

537 BCE — 332 BCE

538
Cyrus’s edict

537
As result of King Cyrus’s edict around the remnant of the 50,000 Jews who were exiled to Babylon are returned to Israel

520
Work begins on rebuilding the Temple

515
Completion and rededication of the Second Temple under Zerubbabel (Ezra 6.15-18)

458
Ezra the Scribe returns from Babylon and the Law is revived

445
Upon Nehemiah’s return from Babylon, Artaxerxes, appoints him governor of Judea and city walls are rebuilt

397
Religious reforms are initiated by Ezra, the Scribe


332 BCE — 63 BCE
The Hellenistic Period

332
Daruis is defeated at Gaugamela by Alexander the Great and Palestine is conquered from the Persians (Daniel 11.3); Jerusalem is captured and the Helenization of the Holy City commences

323
Alexander dies in Babylon and the Wars of Succession start

320
Jerusalem is captured by Ptolemy I

320-198
The reign of Egyptian Ptolemies

198-167
The Syrian Seleucids rule

169
Judaism is outlawed by Seleucid king, Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175-163) and on December 25th, the Temple is profaned


167 BCE — 63 BCE
The Hasmonean Period


166
The Maccabean revolt is begun by the priest Mattathias

167-141
The Maccabean War of Liberation

164
Jerusalem is recaptured by Judah the Maccabee; the Temple is restored

166-160
The reign of Judah the Maccabee


160-143
Jonathan’s reign

150
the Essene community is established

143-135
Simon Maccabeus’ reign

63 BCE — 324 CE/AD
The Roman Period

63
Jerusalem is captured for Rome by General Pompey

63-37
Continuation of Hasmonean rule but under the protection by Rome

40
Herod King of Judea is Rome appointed by Rome

40-AD 4
Herod the Great rules

37
Jerusalem is captured by King Herod the Great

19
Stones for the rebuilding of the Temple are prepared

18
The actual rebuilding of the Temple is begun by Herod

10
The Temple is completed in AD 63 but about 5/4 there is a dedication ceremony; this also marks approximate year of the births of John the Baptist, and Jesus of Nazareth

04
The death of Herod the Great


BCE to CE/AD

26-36
On 31 April 25 / Nisan 14, Pontius Pilate, has been Roman procurator of Judea; the Crucifixion of Jesus
41-44
The new city wall (The "Third Wall") is built by Agrippa, king of Judea,.
44
Herod Agrippa’s death
63
Completion of the Temple

64

66-73
The War of the Jews, the Great Revolt against the Romans

70
Titus destroys Jerusalem and the Second Temple

73
Masada falls

132-135
Bar Kochba leads a war for freedom and Jerusalem once again is the Jewish Capital

135
Emperor Hadrian’s total destruction of Jerusalem is totally destroyed by Emperor Hadrian; new walls are built ; Aelia Capitolina is the name of the new city; Jews are not allowed to enter the former Jerusalem

324 — 638

The Byzantine Period

326
Jerusalem is visited by Queen Helena, the mother of Emperor Constantine the Great, and selects the sites where the events associated with the last days of Jesus took place; to commemorate these events churches built; Queen Helena is especially responsible for the construction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, in AD 335.

438
Jews are permitted by Empress Eudocia to live in Jerusalem

614
Jerusalem is conquered by Persians who destroy most churches and force Jerusalem’s Jews into exile

629
Jerusalem is recaptured by Byzantines


638 — 1099
The Early Muslim Period




638
After Mohammed’s death six years earlier, the Caliph Omar enters Jerusalem and Jews are readmitted to the Holy City

691
Caliph Abd al-Malik completes the Dome of the Rock

701
Caliph al-Walid completes the construction of the al-Aqsa mosque; the destruction of synagogues and churches is ordered by Caliph al-Hakim by
1010

1099 — 1244

The Crusader Kingdom



1099
Jerusalem is captured by the Crusaders, led by Godfrey de Bouillon, following the call by Pope Urban in 1096; Baldwin I is d King of Jerusalem

1187
Jerusalem from Crusaders by Kurdish general Saladin who then allows Jews and Muslims to return and settle in the city.

1192

Although Richard the Lion Hearted tries to re-capture Jerusalem, he does not succeed; A treaty with Saladin allows Christians to worship at their holy sites.

1219
Sultan Malik-al-Muattam tears down city walls

1244
Crusader rule ends with the capture of Jerusalem by Khawarizmian Turks

1260 — 1517
The Mameluk Period

1244
Ayyubids are defeated by Mameluk Sultans and reign over Jerusalem

1260
Jerusalem is captured by Egyptian Mameluks

1267
Arrival of Rabbi Moshe Ben Nahman (Nahmanides) from Spain whose Jewish congregation is revived and a synagogue and center of learning with his name are established

1275
On his way to China Marco Polo visits Jerusalem

1348
Jerusalem is hit by the Black Death Plague

1488
The Jerusalem community is led by Rabbi Obadiah of Bertinoro who settles in Jerusalem


1517 — 1917
The Ottoman Turkish Period

1517
A peaceful takeover of Jerusalem is accomplished by Ottomans

1537-1541
The city walls including today’s 7 gates and the "Tower of David have been open to attack since 1219; the Damascus gate was built in 1542 by Sultan Suleiman ("The Magnificent")

1700
The arrival of Rabbi Yehuda He’Hassid and the "Hurva" Synagogue is built

1836
Sir Moses Montefiore makes his first visit to Jerusalem

1838
Jerusalem experiences the opening of its first consulate (British)

1860
The first Jewish settlement outside walls of the city is established

1898
Dr. Theodor Herzl, founder of the World Zionist Organization visits Jerusalem


1917 — 1948
The British Mandate Period



1917
British General Allenby enters Jerusalem after its conquest by his forces

1918
The foundation stone of Hebrew University on Mount Scopus is laid by Dr. Chaim Weizmann

1920
The appointment of Sir Herbert Samuel as the first British High Commissioner; the establishment of the "Government House" in Jerusalem.

1925
The inauguration of the Hebrew University buildings

1947
A United Nations Resolution recommends the partition of Israel.


1948 —

The Israeli Period

14 May 1948
The proclamation of the State of Israel follows the termination of the British Mandate

14 May 1948-Jan 1949
The Israel War of Liberation takes place

28 May 1948
The New City of Jerusalem survives but the Jewish Quarter in Old City is captured by Jordanian forces

April 1949
The signing of the Israel-Trans-Jordan Armistice Agreement divides Jerusalem between the two countries.


13 Dec. 1949
The declaration of Jerusalem as Capital of the State of Israel

1965
The election of Teddy Kollek as Mayor of Jerusalem

5 June 1967
The shelling of the New City of Jerusalem by the Jordanian Army marks the opening of the Six Day War

7 June 1967
The Old City is captured by Israeli troops and after 2000 years, Jerusalem is reunited

23 June 1967
Access to all holy places is given to all religious communities: Moslems, Christians and Jews

1980
Jerusalem is d to be the united capital of Israel under the Jerusalem Basic Law

1994
The PLO and Israel exchange mutual recognition of each other
 


 


 

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